Since obtaining his Theoretical Physics PhD from the Jagiellonian University in Poland in 1989, he has been working on Mathematical Biology, applying models to study human, animal and plant diseases, soil and terrestrial biodiversity, and climate change. He also has worked on parameter estimation for ecological and epidemiological systems. After a post-doctoral post in Germany, he came to Cambridge in 1992, to work on human and plant diseases. In 2007 he moved to Stirling and in 2018 he joined the University of Strathclyde as a Global Talent Chair. His recent work has been on bioeconomic modelling of crop and tree diseases, linking supply of pollination services to pesticide use, and addressing food security and sustainability in aquaculture, with funding coming from BBSRC, NERC, Scottish Government and Defra. He was part of the Expert Group that provided advice to Scottish Government on the business case for the Plant Health Centre.